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His contrast between military and industrial societies is drawn between despotism, which is primitive and bad, and individualism, which is civilized and good.He believed that in industrial society the order achieved, though planned by no one, is delicately adjusted to the needs of all parties., in which information was provided about the social institutions of various societies, both “primitive” and “civilized.” The series was interrupted in 1881 because of a lack of public support.Spencer was a friend and adviser of Beatrice Potter, later . Spencer was one of the most-argumentative and most-discussed English thinkers of the Victorian period.
He is best remembered for his doctrine of social Darwinism, according to which the principles of evolution, including natural selection, apply to human societies, social classes, and individuals as well as to biological species developing over geologic time.
In (1884), he wrote that England’s Tories generally favour a military and Liberals an industrial social order but that the Liberals of the latter half of the 19th century, with their legislation on hours of work, liquor licensing, sanitation, education, and so on, were developing a “New Toryism” and preparing the way for a “coming slavery.” According to Spencer, Nevertheless, Spencer’s view of such ameliorative legislation as a pernicious aid to the “unfit” and an impediment to the positive development of society through the success of its most-talented members was gradually discredited as the misery of the poor under industrial capitalism became more widely known.
In the second half of the 20th century, interest in Spencer’s social Darwinism and his theory of natural rights was revived by libertarians and like-minded thinkers (e.g., the American philosopher Robert Nozick), who saw in them the basis of a moral argument against the burgeoning postwar welfare state.
After some association with progressive journalism through such papers as (1904) Spencer denies any such desire, much as he admired Eliot’s intellectual powers.
Other friends were George Henry Lewes, Thomas Henry Huxley, and John Stuart Mill.